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A to Z

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Not sure what a word means? Find out in the A to Z


A-C
Abrasion:: A scrape
An abrasion is an injury that happens when the skin is scraped off after it rubs against another surface.
Abscess:: Play Lump of liquid
An abscess is a lump that contains pus, which is made by the body during infection.
Achromatopsia:: Unable to see colour
An inability to see colours present from birth. It is caused by an absence or a defect in the light- sensitive retinal receptor cells called cones that provide sharp visual acuity and colour discrimination.
Age-related cataract:: Cataracts that you get in old age
Cataract that occurs as you get old. It is the most common type affecting both men and women from the age of 50 to 60 years.
Age-related macular degeneration:: Loss of central vision in old age
Degeneration of the photoreceptors in the macula or central region of the retina. This area of the retina is responsible for central vision, used for reading, seeing faces, and so on. Often associated with aging.
Amblyopia:: Play Often known as Lazy eye
Also called lazy eye, this is a condition of decreased vision in one or both eyes and is not correctable by glasses or contact lenses.
AMD:: Age-related macular degeneration
Acronym for age-related macular degeneration. A degeneration of the photoreceptors in the macula or central region of the retina. This area of the retina is responsible for central vision, for reading, seeing faces, and so on. Often associated with aging.
Anaesthetic:: Play Medicine to stop pain
Anaesthetic is a drug used to either numb a part of the body (local), or to put a patient to sleep (general) during surgery.
Aniridia:: Play Being born without an iris
A birth defect in which a child is born without an iris, so there is no way to control the amount of light that enters the eye. The only treatment is to use coloured eye lenses to reduce the amount of light entering the eye.
Anterior chamber:: The space in front of the iris
The space in the eye that is behind the cornea and in front of the iris.
Antibiotic:: Medicine that fight infections
Antibiotics are medicines that can be used to treat infections caused by micro-organisms, usually bacteria or fungi. For example amoxicillin, streptomycin and erythromycin.
Astigmatism:: Play Having a cornea shaped like a rugby ball
A condition where because of the shape of the cornea, light is spread over a diffused area rather than sharply focused on the retina.
Bacteria:: Play Tiny cells that live in the body
Bacteria are tiny, single-celled organisms that live in the body. Some can cause illness and disease and some others are good for you.
Bifocal glasses:: Play Glasses that let you see near and far
Glasses that have different refractive power at the top and at the bottom so that you can see near and far with the same pair of glasses.
Binocular vision:: Play Seeing with both eyes together
The ability to maintain visual focus on an object with both eyes, creating a single visual image.
Blepharitis:: Play Sore eyelids
Common, persistent and sometimes chronic inflammation of the eyelids, resulting from bacteria that reside on the skin.
Blind spot:: A gap in our sight
A small area of the retina where the optic nerve enters the eye, this type of blind spot occurs normally in all eyes.
Blindness:: Can not see anything or very little
a person who is blind has severe sight loss and is unable to see clearly how many fingers are being held up at a distance of three metres or less (even when wearing glasses or lenses). However, they may still have some degree of vision.
Blood test:: A look at your red stuff
During a blood test, a sample of blood is taken from a vein using a needle, so it can be examined in a laboratory.
Blurred vision:: When what you see is not clear
Where an image of an object appears unclear. Bot to be confused with double vision which is different.
Braille:: A system of reading by touch
A system of raised-dot writing devised by Louis Braille (1809-1852). Each Braille character or cell is made up of 6 dot positions that are arranged in a rectangle comprising 2 columns of 3 dots each. A dot may be raised at any of the 6 positions, and each combination of raised dots corresponds to a letter of the alphabet, a punctuation mark, and another symbol.
Bridge:: The bit of spectacles that goes across the nose
The portion of the eyeglass frame which extends across the top of the nose. The nose supports 90 percent of the weight of glasses, so a properly fitting bridge is important for the fit and comfort of glasses.
Cataract:: Play A clouding of the lens of your eye
Clouding of the natural lens of the eye. Most common in people over 60 years of age but also found in children (congenital or childhood cataract).
Cataract surgery:: Removal of your own lens for a new one
Cataract surgery is used to remove the natural lens in the eye and replace it with a clear, plastic lens.
Chalazion:: Play A lump similar to stye
An enlargement of an oil gland with similar symptoms to a stye.
Clinical trial:: Tests to improve medicine
Clinical trials are research studies to test new types of treatments, preventions and diagnoses on patients.
Closed-angle glaucoma:: Severe form of glaucoma
Serious form of glaucoma that can result in a sudden rise in intraocular pressure.
Colour blindness:: Inability to see colour
colour blindness occurs when colour-sensitive cone cells in the retina do not properly pick up or send correct signals to the brain. True colour blindness is the inability to see any colour.
Colour deficiency:: Inability to see colour like others
Partial or total inability to see certain colours the way other people do.
Cone:: A type of cell on the retina
A type of specialized light-sensitive cell (photoreceptor) in the retina that provides sharp central vision and colour vision. Highly concentrated in fovea. Three classes of cones exist: short, medium, and long wavelength cones.
Congenital:: Have had it since birth
Congenital means a condition that is present at birth. The condition could be hereditary or have develop during pregnancy.
Congenital cataracts:: Cataracts present since birth
Cataracts that are present from birth rather than ones that develop later in life.
Conjunctivitis:: Red eye
Inflammation of conjunctiva or membrane that covers the white of the eye and inner surfaces of the eyelid.
Contact lens:: Thin plastic covering to help see
Thin plastic or glass lens designed to fit over the surface of the cornea, usually for correction of a refractive error, but can also be cosmetic (i.e. coloured contact lenses).
Cornea:: Front layer of eye
Clear structure that covers the front part of the eye including the iris and pupil.
Corneal abrasion:: Play Injury to surface of eye
A tearing, scrape or puncture of the cornea which covers the front of the eye. Can be painful but heals quickly.
Crossed eyes:: Having a squint
Also known as strabismus or squint, this condition is a visual defect in which the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions
Cyst:: Fluid filled lump
A cyst is a fluid-filled sac or cavity in the body.

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